30 2016


BioSentinel’s microfluidics card, designed at NASA Ames, will be used to study the impact of interplanetary space radiation on yeast. Once in orbit, the growth and metabolic activity of the yeast will be measured using a 3-color LED detection system and a metabolic indicator dye. Here, pink wells contain actively growing yeast cells that have turned the metabolic dye from blue to pink color.

View 6.3K

word 751 read time 3 minutes, 45 Seconds

The BioSentinel mission was selected in 2013 as one of three secondary payloads to fly on the Space Launch System's first Exploration Mission (EM-1) planned for launch in July 2018. The primary objective of BioSentinel is to develop a biosensor using a simple model organism to detect, measure, and correlate the impact of space radiation to living organisms over long durations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). While progress identifying and characterizing biological radiation effects using Earth-based facilities has been significant, no terrestrial source duplicates the unique space radiation environment.

The BioSentinel biosensor uses the budding yeast S. cerevisiae to detect and measure double strand breaks (DSBs) that occur in response to ambient space radiation. DSBs are deleterious DNS lesions that are generated by exposure to highly energetic particles in the deep-space radiation without errors by the cell. The biosensor consists of genetically engineered yeast strains and nutrient selection strategies that ensure that only cells that have repaired DSBs will grow in specialized media. Therefore, culture growth and metabolic activity of yeast cells directly indicate a successful DSB-and-repair event.

In the BioSentinel payload, yeast cells are stored dried in microfluidic cards inside a 6-Unit (6U) spacecraft measuring approximately 14.4 inches long, 9.4 inches wide, and 4.6 inches tall. It weighs about 30 pounds. At launch, BioSentinel resides within the second stage on the launch vehicle from which it is deployed to a lunar fly-by trajectory and into a heliocentric orbit where its distance to the sun is slightly closer than Earth's, varying between 0.98 to 0.92 times Earth's distance to the sun. After completing the lunar fly-by and spacecraft checkout, the science mission phase begins with the wetting of the first set of cell-containing wells with specialized media. The microfluidic cards carry three yeast strains: wild type (similar to yeast strains found in nature), rad51 mutant (defective in DSB repair), and the DSB biosensor strain. Each set of wells is expected to be in its active mode for 2-4 weeks following hydration; multiple sets of wells will be activated at different time points over the 18-month mission. One reserve set of wells will be activated in the occurrence of a Solar Particle Event (SPE). Payload science data and spacecraft telemetry will be stored on board and then downloaded to the ground.

Growth and metabolic activity of the yeast cells will be measured using a 3-color LED detection system and the metabolic indicator dye alamarBlue. Biological measurements will be compared to data provided by onboard physical sensors an dosimeters to obtain total ionizing radiation dose and particle characterization, and to Earth-based experiments using relevant energetic particle types, energies, and doses. Additionally, three identical BioSentinel payloads will be developed - one for the International Space Station (ISS), where there is similar microgravity but a comparatively low-radiation environment, one for use as a delayed-synchronous ground control at Earth gravity and also with a low radiation environment, and one ground payload that will be used at Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York for radiation testing. Thus the BioSentinel payload will help calibrate the biological effects of radiation in deep space to analogous measurements conducted on Earth and on the ISS.

BioSentinel will conduct the first study of biological response to space radiation outside LEO in over 40 years. BioSentinel will address strategic knowledge gaps related to the biological effects of space radiation and will provide an adaptable platform to perform human-relevant measurements in multiple space environments in the future. Yeast is the ideal organism for this mission because of its spaceflight heritage, it is highly capable of repairing DSBs, and it can be stored in stasis for a long period of time. Moreover, the DSB repair mechanisms in yeast are well studied and highly similar to those in human cells. BioSentinel's results will be critical for improving interpretation of the effects of space radiation exposure, and for reducing the risk associated with long-term human exploration.

The BioSentinel mission is funded by the Advanced Exploration Systems program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. Partner organizations include NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, and the University of Saskatchewan, Canada.

Source by esaint

LSNN is an independent editor which relies on reader support. We disclose the reality of the facts, after careful observations of the contents rigorously taken from direct sources, we work in the direction of freedom of expression and for human rights , in an oppressed society that struggles more and more in differentiating. Collecting contributions allows us to continue giving reliable information that takes many hours of work. LSNN is in continuous development and offers its own platform, to give space to authors, who fully exploit its potential. Your help is also needed now more than ever!

In a world, where disinformation is the main strategy, adopted to be able to act sometimes to the detriment of human rights by increasingly reducing freedom of expression , You can make a difference by helping us to keep disclosure alive. This project was born in June 1999 and has become a real mission, which we carry out with dedication and always independently "this is a fact: we have never made use of funds or contributions of any kind, we have always self-financed every single operation and dissemination project ". Give your hard-earned cash to sites or channels that change flags every time the wind blows , LSNN is proof that you don't change flags you were born for! We have seen the birth of realities that die after a few months at most after two years. Those who continue in the nurturing reality of which there is no history, in some way contribute in taking more and more freedom of expression from people who, like You , have decided and want to live in a more ethical world, in which existing is not a right to be conquered, L or it is because you already exist and were born with these rights! The ability to distinguish and decide intelligently is a fact, which allows us to continue . An important fact is the time that «LSNN takes» and it is remarkable! Countless hours in source research and control, development, security, public relations, is the foundation of our basic and day-to-day tasks. We do not schedule releases and publications, everything happens spontaneously and at all hours of the day or night, in the instant in which the single author or whoever writes or curates the contents makes them public. LSNN has made this popular project pure love, in the direction of the right of expression and always on the side of human rights. Thanks, contribute now click here this is the wallet to contribute

Similar Articles / BioSentinel
from: ladysilvia
by: esaint
30 gen 2016